Georgia O'Keeffe Exhibition Fails to Connect with Native American Culture at Phoenix's Heard Museum

Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation. © Georgia O'Keeffe Museum
Georgia O'Keeffe's Paul's Kachina (1931), oil on board, 8 x 8 in., is from the Georgia O'Keeffe Museum.

Just because an artist works in abstraction does not mean an exhibition of that artist's work should follow suit. Case in point: "Georgia O'Keeffe in New Mexico: Architecture, Katsinam, and the Land," currently on view at the Heard Museum.

The biographically driven exhibition, which includes 53 works by the artist, comes to Phoenix by way of the Georgia O'Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe. Divided into three subjects, the show purportedly explores how O'Keeffe was inspired by New Mexico and Southwestern culture between 1929 and 1953.

See also: "Echoes of Japan" at ASU Art Museum in Tempe Showcases Delicate Work of Women Artists

Of particular interest to the Heard are O'Keeffe's studies of katsina tithu (kachina dolls), the painted wooden representations of spirit beings carved by Native American artists for use in select Hopi and Zuni ceremonies. The Heard's iteration of the show includes a collection of katsina dolls, not included in all occurrences of the exhibition, as well as a series of quotations from consulting katsina expert Alph H. Secakuku, effectively refocusing viewers' attention on the ties between O'Keeffe and Hopi/Pueblo culture.

Well, that was the goal, anyway.

Apart from a short video about O'Keeffe's affinity for New Mexico, the first floor of the exhibit is wholly dedicated to katsina tithu. O'Keeffe's paintings and drawings of katsina dolls line the walls of the room, with examples of real katsina tithu grouped in a display in the middle of the room. But even after walking around the room several times, it felt impossible to bridge the metaphorical (and physical) distance between the katsina tithu figures and O'Keeffe's renderings of the figures. The examples of real katsina dolls are not particularly edifying in terms of O'Keeffe's work, which seems (and arguably is) completely divorced from actual Hopi tradition.

O'Keeffe's artwork itself progresses from realistic studies of katsina dolls to more abstract interpretations of the subject, which is interesting, especially in the context of her larger body of work as an artist.

Wall text, with commentary from Hopi artist Ramona Sakiestewa, reads: "O'Keeffe titles her work with her own associations, like 'Kachina with Horns from Back' or 'Paul's Kachina' or 'Blue-Headed Indian Doll,' which takes them out of the realm of collecting or ethnography. She studies them in no other way than for her own art-making."

Though I happen to agree with Sakiestewa's interpretation, the statement completely undermines the central conceit of this portion of the exhibit -- that O'Keeffe was interested in Hopi/Pueblo culture. The drawings and paintings seem much more like the work of an artist interested in the objectness of the doll itself, completely divorcing the figure from its cultural and spiritual significance.

Because I am no expert in native iconography and the appropriations thereof, I am uncertain where this leaves O'Keeffe's work in terms of political correctness. The excellent exhibition catalog accompanying "Georgia O'Keeffe in New Mexico" offers multiple perspectives on this kind of issue, but I wish the curators could have found a way to bring these discussions to bear within the exhibition itself.

Location Info


Heard Museum

2301 N. Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ

Category: General

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Daniel Troche
Daniel Troche

She wasnt a religious person at all. She just found the katsina dolls interesting and a subject for painting. Thats why those paintings dont have their proper names. Instead there are names like Blue Doll with Horns, Paul's Kachina and so on. Another fact to consider is that most if not all of the paintings on display were pieces she had never wanted the public to see. At the end of the day the gallery is a means of bringing in people who otherwise would not care for nor visit the museum.

Rain Descurainia Fulton
Rain Descurainia Fulton

o'keeffe obviously would fail to connect for one she's an immigrant settler and during the early 1900 most people had no way to understand indigenous mindframes even to the simplest, since many natives where not considered citizens by the settler mindset of that era, she would be less different? or even understand native philosophy? I assume she had no grasp on all the tribal languages surrounding the pueblo ancestral grounds... but deeming her affinity with the natural environment is her only connection to that which she found foreign to her mindframe as a immigrant settler to this land

Daniel Troche
Daniel Troche

The museum is trying to appeal to another demographic as well. It tries to bring fans of O' Keeffe in who might have never been aware or dont know much about Native American art/culture. The dolls in exhibition are there to give an explanation of which doll she painted because she didnt use the actual name of the doll. As far as the second floor goes, its based on the architecture and the land, the same as the title of the gallery. The paintings are set chronologically from 1929 to 1953. I hope this makes people understand the purpose of the gallery more.

Judy Adams
Judy Adams

I love her and am grateful for this exhibition. Katsina is pronounced like that. We now know the Hopi did not use a ch sound in their language.

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